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7. INFORMATICS IN PRACTICE

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Basic classic resources society are capital, means of work and raw materials, while the key resources of post-industrial society of information and knowledge. The basic requirement of survival and development of modern society, which is becoming informatization of individual and organizational system, and must:

Otherwise there is a crisis of information. Total of human knowledge is growing rapidly, doubling in about every 5 years. Ability to develop and ensure the proper technology to achieve the key objectives of the only way of survival or irreversible lagging behind follows.

Prerequisites for the success of any business system, information on supply, demand, competition, financial flows, investments and the like. Simply put, business information, as follows:

  • Primary
    • public databases
    • stock information
    • information in the literature
    • Information on the Internet
    • periodicals
    • statistical sources
    • international projects

  • Secondary
    • scientific and professional meetings
    • internal periodicals
    • trade shows
    • business Partners
    • colleagues and friends
    • own information system

Problems that must be overcome in the management system and development of software products and information systems. No successful development without penetration of new scientific knowledge and technological capabilities appropriate to provide for, and quality of software and support. Of course, software support, and equipment must be in accordance with the choice of electronic computers. Additional costs are not small, especially for the network infrastructure of the facility level to the state and the world. Internet as a medium for the exchange of information and new knowledge is almost unsurpassed and must be strategic orientation of each country, especially scientific institutions.

Information system quality depends on the following factors:

The first of these factors is of a decisive influence on the next three, and it should be given the greatest attention. It essentially determines the strategy for the development and success of information system.

Methodological basis for developing information systems including systems engineering, software engineering and information engineering. Approaches to the development and construction of the system are different according to the type of information system. Types of information systems are shown in the following figure.

 Types of information systems
Figure 7.1 Types of information systems.

Among species there are no clear boundaries, and software support that accompanies them typically incorporates multiple parts. Very efficient (and expensive) software support Lotus-Notes software products, and their famous part called Lotus-Domino.

In today's practice, the subsystem is in use for the production of documents and emails while other segments in all kinds of systems almost ignored. Successful businesses and institutions have been operating for almost all of these types.

The essence of designing an information system is its modeling. Approaches to the modeling of information systems are very diverse, but they all basically based on the development of gradualism shown by Figure 7.2.

 Development of system
Figure 7.2 The development of information system.

Diversity in approach depends on many factors, and which approach to choose depends on the existing situation. If there is no physical equipment will move from the top of the triangle, again if there is already some kind of equipment will go to the bottom of the triangle, taking into consideration the physical equipment. Upon transition to the next phase is always performed with the necessary adjustments based on the previous acquisition of new knowledge or the introduction of new demands. Thus, the interactive relationship between phases in system development is always present.

Illustrates the complexity of the individual phases of the best parts of the triangle width of both phases of the system development. Very often the biggest problem is to train and to get staff to use the system, which is available. The reasons are usually out of fear for novelty, lack of will and self-study to the laziness and ignorance. If it succeeds, then overcome the broadest segment of the triangle can be some cheerful colors.

Of particular importance to the development of society is scientific work on testing and monitoring of actual physical processes observed in a system of any kind.

Studying the behavior of a real physical system is often difficult due to the complexity of measuring their physical size. Therefore, the preferred access methods mimic the actual physical system with a more accessible system with which the variables easier to monitor, and where values are changing in the same way as in the actual physical system.

According to the stated performance can be achieved with two types of devices:

Direct systems are designed for direct study of physical models. Can compare, for example, the law of motion in mechanics with resonant circuit in electronics, as shown in the following figure.

 Mutually analogue models
Figure 7.3 Analog physical and electrical model of system.

Variable electrical device are voltage and current, and they represent a direct link to the physical variables such as force, velocity and displacement. Therefore, makes the actual electronic substitute for a physical system and measuring electrical quantities in the prepared electronic system essentially monitors the behavior of the physical system. The results obtained by measuring electrical parameters can be further processed.

Instead to study mechanical and other systems using the actual electronic models that are connected to them by analogy between the physical sizes as shown in Figure 7.3, can be used for the same purpose and electronic devices in which mimics the mathematical form of the physical laws of the state or process in mechanical system without creating a direct model of an electronic or physical system is monitored in an indirect way. Device for that is analog computer.

Generally, a device for studying mathematical forms that characterize the conduct of certain physical, chemical, biological, economic or regulatory process or system is called the analog computer. Mathematical form of the studied processes are continuous functions, so the variables are of continuous time at analog computer.

The analog computers to mimic certain mathematical operations are most often used electromechanical and electronic elements. Their mutual combinations are available adder, integration, differentiation, multiplication, function generators and the like. Functions with which to experiment illustrates the relevant voltage changes, and an input signal into a unit consisting of interconnected electronic and electromechanical components.

By changing the parameters of the electronic components can be monitored behavior of an actual physical system. So using a computer to mimic (simulate) the overall process, and we can conclude the overall behavior of the physical system.

Such an electronic device are quite expensive and complex to produce, and one of them required very high stability in operation. Advancement of technology has enabled relatively inexpensive and fast digital computers able to perform hundreds of thousands of mathematical operations per second, and with sophisticated software support can be based on the entered data to simulate any mathematical function and create an electronic environment the actual observed physical processes.

Specifically, the digital computer using measurement converter to supply of data which is then with the help of computer programs analyzed in order to create virtual electronic model and mathematical form, which belongs to the physical process that is observed.

Task of measurement converter is to convert physical size of the non-electrical analog electrical values by analog-to-digital converter (A/D) to deliver information to digital computer in the binary form. A/D converter and its related digital-to-analog converter (D/A) with the opposite task, together with a digital computer, are now an indispensable part of every advanced system for monitoring physical processes.




SUMMARY:

The information system is being developed gradually. Very often in practice used during the development of an incremental approach, or develop one of the first types of information systems at all phases and gradually builds again in phases to the final result and the same procedure applies to the next type of information system. That the procedure chosen depends on the development team, who performed the procedure.

In the preceding chapters processed the theoretical setting of DCS. But one of the most important application of the process control, manufacturing or scientific.

To illustrate the manufacturing process can be used for example mechanical arm in the process of painting the vehicle. A worker on the assembly line color vehicle using a mechanical arm in which the appliance spray paint. All movements of the joints of the mechanical arm, where the engine driver, is sent to a computer via an electronic sensor positions designated for each wrist and recorded in the computer as a data set. If the employee is satisfied with the effect, in every other vehicle of the same type of computer instructed to repeat the recorded actions. So analog movements are recorded in electronic binary computer, or binaries run motors in the wrist of the mechanical arm. Of course it is a robot running for coloring.

Example of scientific research can be easily illustrated by examining the strength of galvanic cells (batteries). The battery load some resistance and various sensors measured at various time intervals the current state of stress and its temperature and the resulting data set can be used to evaluate its quality and efficiency. Of course, the data will be processed by electronic digital computer with appropriate software support.

As this is the analogue values of the movement, temperature, voltage, or anything else, and digital computer uses binary files, it is necessary for sensors to send data into binary form, if necessary, and vice versa. Serve this purpose analog-to-digital (A/D) and digital-to-analog (D/A) converters are commonly inserted into the computer as an additional electronic device in one of the expansion slots, or an integral part of the sensor.

Once applied analog computers used for these purposes, they went over the history and nowhere is no longer used, and should not be further mentioning.

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Citing this page:
Radic, Drago. " IT - Informatics Alphabet " Split-Croatia.
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