Examples of computer work aids

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Computer aids working so far been considered only to the extent that the exercise general insight into their problems. Not one particular area is not considered further because of the great diversity in the application. The most widespread application is in the design and production of electronic circuits which is understandable, because the issues closest to their producers. Besides just in this area requires a huge amount of engineering work, technology and market demands are changing very fast and should respond quickly to change if it wants to survive in the market. Number of supplies in this area makes up 3/4 of the total number of developed tools. Another area of importance for the construction of computer graphics and drawing. Next chapter describe some uses of computer work aids.

Example IV

Construction of electronic chips with computer work aids.

Today's integrated circuits - IC already exceed the thousands of embedded basic logic elements, or tens of thousands or even millions of basic electronic components. Sometimes, their development has been very hard, because almost everything is done by hand, and there were hundreds of standardized integrated circuits that have merged with each other on a printed circuit board in order to obtain the result. But the development of technology and computer work aids provided by the design of integrated circuits specific dedicate - ASIC (Application Specific Integrated Circuits) just to the wishes of the client. The result today is mostly seen in the fact that there is no TV and that different manufacturers have the same integrated circuits (to service a headache!).

Construction of integrated circuits is a hardware counterpart writing program as a result of this program support translates into geometric shapes on silicon inserts rows micrometers or less. Therefore, for this part of the program support in working aids commonly called 'silicon software'. The above uses the following elements:

Basic logical structure (NO, NOR ...) basically allows for the realization of any simpler logic functions when connected properly. Implemented in a way that programming is carried unfinished integrated circuit in the final phase in a manner similar to making a similar PROM memory. These are the simplest structures in integrated circuits.

Logical sequences are partially manufactured integrated circuits which are composed of ordered arrays of transistors that gives meaning to the functionality of adding metal interconnections in the final phase of the IC. Such clusters are organized to perform the tasks of addition, multiplexing, etc., and are called macro-functions.

Standard cells adapt to specific customer requirements. These are the most complex structures that are processed during all phases of the IC production. Manufacturers during the development of all new IC designs are stored in a library (database) data and have a rich treasury of ready-made solutions to their computer workstations aids. That is precisely what enables faster and easier design IC and quick responses to market demands.

The analogy between the development of software and IC is shown in the following figure.

 IC Making
Figure 7.3.8 Comparison of 'ordinary' and 'silicon' program support.

If you would use the same terminology for both processes are shown, the first would be a computer-assisted translation work in binary code, and the other computer working tool for stacking logic and transistor structures, and making masks. Number of components from the stage to the stage several times to grow. So for ten imaginary modules which should be produced and must be linked to more than one million end define specific geometric shapes and masks required for their production. This fact confirms the figures reported to work without a computer tool, and its rich knowledge base does not have a successful production of integrated circuits. Finally, the completed design with the help of computer aids but can be designed to predict properties of an IC (dissipation, speed of work ...), as well as during certain phases which allows modification and refinement in the design process. Such as in the early days of making IC, when they designed the hand, could not even imagine.

Of course, it can be deduced interconnection technology development and the development of computer work aids. Better technology will enable the production of faster and more powerful computers in the service of working tools to be developed on this basis and provide better technology and so the circle is closed.

When the product is finished and tested and goes to consumer. Production is not piece by piece, but one IC mask multiplies and produces great for making several hundred IC once. So on a round plate silicon (wafer) 10-90 centimeters in diameter making hundreds IC. Particularly computer-assisted work examines individual IC functionality and are marked invalid before the whole plate divided into individual pieces, each of which is inserted into its plastic casing and 'black cockroach is there'.

Followed by testing of the final product at all relevant parameters and their classification and labeling for the properties class, and will also provide a Pentium 450, Pentium 500, Pentium 550 ... Thus, the same product with different performance caused due to errors during production or installation in the casing, and therefore different prices. Unusable wastes up to 30%.

Example V

Construction of printed boards by a computer work aids.

Integrated circuits in electronics basic 'building blocks' with which to produce electronic devices, and are placed in monolayer or multilayer printed circuit boards. It should be appreciated some standard requirements such dimensions and layout of the slot on the PC motherboard and the like. By formulation requires access to the printed circuit board design.

 Making motherboard
Figure 7.3.9 Steps of making printed circuit boards.

When it is determined that the plates should contain manufactured the functional diagram, and then wiring diagram. The database (library) data supplies have previously entered the physical elements (symbols, dimensions and their extracts), and when they all interrelate, computer work aid will default positions and interrelations draft a printed circuit board. If a connection can not be directly exported constructor will set an example as an element of an electric bypass on the board at the appropriate places or move into the position of an element if it does not violate the standard, and repeat the design brief.

Regardless of whether the board is made by hand or with the aid of tools, not just a one-way deal. Specifically during the operation will be to identify possible avenues of improvement, no matter what level the making. Modifications would certainly have been a very painful job without computer aids. According to the figure it can be concluded that the present four working tools combined in a single task. This is especially important in the electronics industry where the potential for a new improved elements for installation during the design and production of motherboards is highly probable. Then the base element complement the new element and access the redesign of the existing board.

At every phase of designing printed circuit boards, computer work aids must allow creation (design) printed circuit boards, testing and improvement solutions. The importance of standardization here is very pronounced. Top solutions of computer aids in this area will also contain logical and electrical simulators with which to validate the solution.

When the motherboard is ready to connect to 'test table'. On the motherboard will bring all the necessary electrical elements to 'live' validate its functionality and accuracy. This is again another very specific computer work aid.

Expert Systems

So far, examples of computer work aids used the digital computer on-line or off-line mode. But in both cases, the computer does exactly as programmed, neither more nor less than that, especially as far as the 'responsibility' for what is done. Expert systems as specific job aids are usually used to consult the user, because they contain a rich collection of data based on knowledge of top professionals, but include elements of artificial intelligence - AI. In the field of computers can not talk about intelligent behavior, but it can be (at least for now) to see if something with engineering-economic point of view improves production without outside influence.

Artificial intelligence has begun to develop the fifties, when digital computers are sufficiently strengthened to perform complex tasks. The balance of power PCs and certain creatures exemplifies the best next figure.

 IQ factor
Figure 7.3.10 Preview intelligence of machinery, animals and humans.

Computer intelligence is still far below the intelligence of living beings and will need a long time to change the situation radically. Pattern recognition and spoken language are only a small part of what might be called artificial intelligence. Yet in a narrower area can make a very useful intelligent systems that include extensive knowledge in a narrow field based on the knowledge of people is adequately implemented in the computer and its software. Many of today's expert systems give such good results that one should work for years to gain so much experience to be able to work as an expert system.

There are expert systems for preparation of IC (mentioned above), oil exploration, servicing cars and the like. Expert system for example has concluded that the routine test fired missiles or start a nuclear attack situation as a warning or alarm disclosed. The basic principle of the expert system is shown below.

 Expert system
Figure 7.3.11 Scheme of the expert system.

The basis of the system is a knowledge base that contains all information from the system, which is an expert system designed. The mechanism used to execute the order on the basis of the obtained data collection reached a conclusion on how to proceed. At the same time, until a conclusion is not unique, but is analyzing opportunities to achieve the goal of an analysis of the advantages and disadvantages. Presentation of expert knowledge in order to be entered into the computer perform knowledge engineers and the result is a program running on a computer in which these skills, 'know' is used. Comparison of knowledge and collection of primary data obtained by the decision. New information may require a review of the decision, and the right decisions can be used to enrich the knowledge base.

Expert knowledge can be classified into three basic categories:

Computer working outside the domain of artificial intelligence algorithms, which mainly takes resolve and solve a problem, if the algorithm is well-made and are used to good data. For comparison, in the field of artificial intelligence can be done with a probable but not quite certain data. Hence, the solution is not certain but it is likely. The quality of the expert system will just be expressed percentage of correct solutions. And people work the same way. Finally an expert system designs modeled by the man himself. The difference between a good expert system in a given area and the man is the fact that the computer is incorruptible, is not subject to the emotions and the like. Such weaknesses inherent in the computer does not know the man, and in some cases gives better results than man.

Take the example of a chess expert system. One and the same man, and he can not always win even though the computer 'game' in the same way. Another important element is that the computer playing chess with opponents 'learn' that automatically enriches their own knowledge base and improves the decision-making mechanisms. Expert systems in medicine for diagnostic purposes, making the right decisions, but in more than 90% of cases where available data is correct. If you can also give false information it will also give the forecast, but it is not wrong to enter false data.

Either way, from the first science fiction films until today are quite a lot of that has come true even though it looked like a mere fantasy. What will the future bring? Stand and look!


Once took care of our car were led servicers who are bringing their own conclusions based on the knowledge gained life experience. Today, the situation is fundamentally changed. Not only the car warns the driver about current or potential defects, but the service can perform a complete analysis of the state of the car. All sensors are connected to cable car for a power point which when connected to the computer in the service is a source of data for computer analysis. On the basis of the expert system built into the computer will come to a conclusion about any defects or misalignment and deterioration of individual components, and get instructions for the next steps to be taken. Quality of service is much higher, no doubt, and the steps to be taken are clear.

Above seems to be science fiction. But it is similar to the airline industry has long occurred, is not so obvious. In fact after a certain number of hours of flying a plane goes into the hangar and inspects almost 'last screw' with a big help of computer work aids.

Computer job aids can be very commercial purpose. Loading and distribution of the burden on the ship board will be a perfect according to computer work aid. Officer accountable for the job they should once for the same hours. Today the picture is fundamentally different.

It seems that a small silicon 'chip' made a revolution in our daily lives that completion can not be deduced.


Citing of this page:
Radic, Drago. " IT - Informatics Alphabet " Split-Croatia.
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