The gamepad is an indispensable part of playing games on your computer. It replaced the joystick device and its software makes it possible to adjust each of its control element in order to accommodate the needs of a game. In addition, mice with a multitude of programmable keys are also part of the game equipment. These peripherals are not relevant to the description on this page. Playing on the computer, versus sporting competitions, is a new play discipline, both for big and small, compared to playing devices, as a 'pinball' shown in Figure 1.2 of the multimedia Chapter, which were basically in the game room. Great gameplay has been gained in a small and highly acceptable platform - a smartphone. But, with all the playability of games on that platform, will never reach the quality and complexity of games that are made for computer platforms. These are 'games' for small children. This particular smartphone is the main 'culprit' as my grandson learned early self-pee and poop. 'If you know with the two years to playing on the phone, then you'll learn to do shit yourself.' - pronouncedly said Mother.
But let's just ignore the 'little' technology, and to make it clear what is really playing on the computer. True, gaming computers as console players such as Xbox, PlayStation, Nintendo and others are used for the purpose of playing, but it's all that impervious to a powerful PC. The computer from Example II in the chapter on Windows 10 OS is by features that are barely acceptable for today's games.
At first, everything seemed ridiculous in one way. Ping-Pong, Tetris and other games had poor and weak graphics, but they were 'contagious', especially Tetris. The screenshot on the screen was about how to show the next thumbnails.
Figure 1. PC games; Ping-Pong, Tetris, Sokoban.
Just playing games and playing is one of the fastest reason of developing PC graphics cards. The operating system itself is not very demanding, but the games are quite different. Make the texture of trees that sway in the wind, the excitement of the sea or something like this is a rather demanding task for the graphic processor (GPU - Graphics Processing Unit), which basically has much more transistor units than the microprocessor (CPU - Central Processing Unit). A CPU consists of a few cores optimized for sequential serial processing of data while a GPU has a massively parallel architecture consisting of thousands of smaller, more efficient cores designed for handling multiple tasks simultaneously. GPU-accelerated computing offloads compute-intensive portions of the application to the GPU, while the remainder of the code still runs on the CPU. From a user's perspective, applications simply run much faster.
Around 2005, the games already have a realistic graphic as the next image appears.
Figure 2. Game 'Panzer Elite Action: Fields of Glory'.
'Panzer Elite Action: Fields of Glory' is a World War II tank action game, in which the player can command a platoon of either German (4 tanks) or American (5 tanks) forces in three scenarios. The player can roster the crew for each tank in his platoon, based on their skills, which increase over time. New members of crew become available over time, for replacement of dead and wounded. They may also be awarded historical medals.
Game has two modes of gaming:
Single Player Mode - Playing a single player according to scenarios embedded in the game. The game itself is the story of three tank commanders, one for each campaign.
Multiplayer Mode - Playing multiple players in a computer network using existing scenarios or scenarios controlled by a dedicated server.
The next 'movie' depicts the crew of the submarine simulation 'Silent Hunter 4: Wolves of the Pacific', and is noticeably well-liked graphics. The simulation uses detailed and accurate 3D graphics to immerse the player in the environment of a World War II submarine.
Slika***** 3. 'Silent Hunter 4: Wolves of the Pacific' / Network playing.
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Compared to the shown this series of games has its previous and subsequent performances. It all started in 1996, to disappear after 2016 with total collapse of on-line game introduced in 2013 that is badly accepted. The fourth version of this simulation game, maybe best version, can be used in both of the above two modes, but unfortunately for the players, as time goes by the manufacturers after a while, the servers are shut down. However, some independent firms like 'Tunngle' support network play with a very affordable membership fee.
Figure**** 4. Server for network gaming 'Tunngle' / Router settings for 'Tunngle'.
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With 'Tunngle' service you can use the Local Area Network (SOHO) Multiplayer Option of your games to play with your friends online. For this purpose, the appropriate software must be downloaded from their server. Figure 4a shows the interface that allows gaming, and Figure 4b shows how to configure the router to make their program support work well (a green smile in the lower right corner of the interface). Figure 4c shows two networked players which can communicate via the 'Tunngle' interface. A set of Figures 3 shows screen-shots of game when two players are on the network. Network gaming is increasingly taking on social significance every day, and even tournaments are organized, most often organized by graphic card manufacturers in terms of promotion of their products (Figure 4e).
The theme of this page is not to show genres of games that are available to users, and there are quite a few. On the left side of the 'Tunngle' interface, they are ranked in their vision. But, as time goes by the concept of online gaming has changed a bit. With today's powerful PCs and high-speed Internet, the user acquires client-based software support that connects to the dedicated server (client-server architecture) and is even more effective. The next step shows one of the compilations showing the features of such games.
Figure 5. Best Free On-line Games You Should Play In 2017.
The main feature of this games, apart from the self-sufficiency part of a game, does not allow you to play on your computer independently. And no one can say that the chosen scenes from the games do not look fascinating.
So, graphic card evaluated from time related to Figure 1. Modern graphic cards for new generation of gaming have to work of more much of task then before. For knowledge about basic features of Graphic card read further.
As a graphics card is installed into a PC, will see only connectors at the back side of PC. Many graphics cards have multiple outputs, so more than one display device can be used at a time. There are many kinds of graphic card outputs, interfaces, graphic processors and technologies. Let describe part of that.
Outputs - Outputs from a graphics card to display an image on a monitor (or something else) can be digital or analog. Analog output is part of history, but still in use. Of course, connectors for particular purposes are not the same.
Composite Video (RCA) - This is a traditional video output commonly used in televisions or related devices, such as VCRs. Very low-resolution analog signal that's typically used for presentations.
S-Video (S-VHS) - Superior to single cable composite video, still analog an not much better.
Component Video - This output utilizes three separate coaxial style jacks, named 'Y', 'Pb' and 'Pr'. These provide analog separate color information for HDTV (high definition television). This type of output will also connect to most projectors.
VGA Output (D-Sub) - It stands for 'Video Graphics Array' (consisting of a certain amount of horizontal and vertical pixels). In the graphics hardware sector, however, it stands for 'Video Graphics Adapter'. The corresponding connector is called 'D-Sub 15' and performs an analog display signal that may vary depending on the quality of the product.
DVI Output - 'Digital Video/Visual Interface'. DVI is the standard digital or analog output for graphics cards and flat panel displays (with the exception of low-budget models). End of CRT era. The interface is designed to transmit analog and uncompressed digital video and can be configured to support multiple modes such as DVI-A (analog only), DVI-D (digital only) or DVI-I (digital and analog). Best choice is Dual link DVI-DL which supports two digital channels toward to monitor for increasing the bandwidth.
HDMI - It is the output that supports both video and audio information in the same cable. HDMI was created for television/movie applications, but because it is a highly secure format is used on the computer at the request for upcoming high definition high definition.
DisplayPort - The interface is primarily used to connect a video source to a display device such as a computer monitor, and it can also carry audio, USB, and other forms of data.
Graphics Card Interfaces - All data communicated between the graphics card and the rest of the computer travels through the graphics card's slot, or interface. The most important aspect of a graphics card interface is the bandwidth. The term 'bandwidth' refers to the amount of information that can pass through the interface in a given time. Interface (slot) can be:
ISA - Industry Standard Architecture is a retronym term for the 16-bit internal bus of IBM PC/AT and similar computers based on the Intel 80286 processor (Figure 3.5.4). Enough for the games shown in Figure 1.
VLSI - Something like extended ISA. Very unstable.
PCI - Peripheral Component Interconnect which in consumer desktop computers had a 32-bit bus using a 33 MHz bus clock and 5 V signalling, although the PCI 1.0 standard provided for a 64-bit variant as well.
PCI-X - It uses a modified protocol to support higher clock speeds (up to 133 MHz), but is otherwise similar in electrical implementation. PCI-X 2.0 added speeds up to 533 MHz, with a reduction in electrical signal levels. PCI-X is in fact fully specified for both 32-bit and 64-bit PCI connectors.
AGP - Accelerated Graphics Port developed by Intela in 1996 to increase the speed of graphics cards attached to the motherboards of the computer. An improved version of the PCI interface, which was not part of the PCI bus. That's why is the 'port'. Era when games start as shown in Figure 2.
PCI Express - Serial interface subsystem. Thanks to this, it runs with very few connections. Different from parallel buses, the total bandwidth is available for every device, while e.g. several PCI cards have to share the total available bandwidth. PCI Express works on the basis of multiplying as many single links (or lanes) as required to lineup the desired bandwidth. Something like parallel work of more serial communication.
Graphics Processor - The graphics processor is the single most important part of the graphics card. Almost all hardware specifications, such as pixel shaders, vertex shaders, pipelines, and component clock speeds refer to the architecture and capabilities of the graphics processor. The only other specifications of note are associated with the graphics card memory, which works hand in hand with the graphics processor to help deliver performance in bandwidth-intensive application such as 3D games.
Graphics Technology - Making technology has the same role as for a chip.
Video Memory - Today's graphics cards are equipped with 128, 256, 512 MB or more of local memory, and both DDR and GDDR memory products are being used. The more local memory the graphics processor can access, the more graphics data (mostly textures) can be stored locally, which means that it does not have to be swapped into the computer's main memory (RAM), thus avoiding the 'bottleneck' pass rate data.
Cooler - In most cases a cooler is simply a passive heatsink with a fan attached to blow air across the surface of a heat sink, increasing the ability to dissipate heat. Graphics card coolers are typically applied to the graphics processor, because the graphics processor is the hottest component on the video card.
Glossary Of Basic Graphics Terms, graphics features and technology - A bunch of terms used to describe the features of a graphics card. There are quite a few in comparison to the above, which are basic.
Refresh Rate - Just like at movie or television, computer simulates motion on screen of monitor by displaying a series of different images. Monitor's refresh rate is the amount of times that the graphics card will update images every second. The human eye and brain do not spin more than 50 shades per second and understands them as an unbroken sequence without flickering. Therefore, it is better to exceed the specified value and all over 75 Hz is great.
Pixel - Pixel stands for 'picture element'. It is simply a small dot of graphical information on display of monitor - the representation of a color (for most purposes these are values of red, green and blue). CRT monitors draw the complete display line by line while flat panel displays (LCD) can update each pixel individually.
Vertex - All objects in a 3D scene are made up of 'vertices'. The vertice is a point in 3D space with X, Y, Z coordinates. Multiple vertices joined together (at least three of them) build a polygon that can be as simple as a triangle, then cube or a more complex shape. A texture is then applied to it to make this element (or a number of aligned elements) look real. The 3D cube is made of eight vertices. More complex objects may appear to have curved shapes, which you can achieve by using very large amounts of vertices.
Texture - A texture is simply a 2D image, the size of which varies, that is applied to a 3D object to simulate its surface. For example, cube consists of eight vertices. It looks like a simple box until a texture is applied. Once the texture is applied to the 3D object, the object looks like the texture has been painted on it.
Shader - In the field of computer graphics, a shader is a special type of computer program that was originally used to do shading (the production of appropriate levels of light, darkness, and color within an image) but which now perform a variety of specialized functions in various fields of computer graphics special effects or do video post-processing unrelated to shading, and even functions unrelated to graphics at all.
Vertex shaders - Vertex shaders deform or transform 3D elements. Vertex processors (Vertex Shader Units) are components on the graphics processor designed to process shaders that affect only vertices. Since more vertices means more complex 3D objects, vertex shaders are important in 3D scenes with many or complex 3D objects.
Pixel shaders - Can change pixel colors based on complex input; think of a light source in a 3D scene in which some colors appear brighter when the object is lit, while others create shadows that are generated by changing pixels color information. Game developers rely more and more on complex shader programs and logical units to produce realistic graphics. Chances are, the most graphically appealing games you have seen make extensive use of shaders.
A pixel processor (Pixel Shader Units) is a component on the graphics chip devoted exclusively to pixel shader programs. These processing units only do calculations regarding pixels. Because pixels represent color values, pixel shaders are used for all sorts of impressive graphical effects. As an example, the most impressive water effects you have seen in a video game were created with pixel shaders. The number of pixel shaders in a graphics processor is used to compare different graphics cards in regard to pixel processing performance. More is better.
Fill Rates - Rate at which a graphics processor can draw pixels. There are generally two forms of fill rates:
Pixel fill rate - Total number of pixels the card can output at screen of monitor, and is calculated as the number of raster operations (ROPs) multiplied by the clock frequency.
Texture fill rate - This rate can be the number of pixel pipelines multiplied by the clock frequency or number of texture units by the clock frequency.
Unified Shaders - Vertex geometry and pixel shader code structures will be functionally similar but have dedicated rolls. A new approach is to merge the previous two into the image processing.
Texture Mapping Units (TMU) - Works in conjunction with pixel and vertex shader units. More TMU's will be faster at processing texture information.
Raster Operator Units (ROP) - The raster operation processors are responsible for writing pixel data to memory. The speed at which this is done is known as the fill rate. ROP's and fill rates used to be a much more important metric in the early days of 3D graphics cards.
Pipelines - A pipeline isn't formally accepted as a technical term. There are different pipelines within a graphics processor as there are separate functions being preformed at any given time. Historically, it has been referred to as a pixel processor that is attached to a dedicated TMU. Graphics card with more pipelines will be generally faster.
Manufacturing Process - This term refers to the structural size and precision of the manufacturing process used to create an integrated circuit. The smaller the size, the smaller and more advanced the manufacturing process. The smaller process also means that the distances between operational units are also shorter and the data transmissions take less time. This shortening of distances, lowered voltages and other advantages allow smaller process products to have higher clock frequency speeds.
Graphics Processor Clock Speed - Graphics processor clock speed is measured in Megahertz (MHz), which can be described as 'millions of cycles per second'. The clock speed has a direct effect on the performance of the graphics processor. The faster it runs, the more work it does per second.
Local Graphics Memory - The memory on the graphics card has a profound impact on performance. However, different aspects of the memory have different impacts on performance.
Memory Size - The amount of video RAM is probably the most overrated part of a graphics card. Uninformed consumers tend to use the amount of RAM on a card to differentiate it from other cards, but in reality the amount of RAM has a very small impact on performance when compared to other considerations like clock speed and the memory interface.
Bus size - The memory bus is one of the most important aspects of memory performance. A modern graphics card's memory bus can range from 64 bits to 256 bits. Higher memory bandwidth (channel capacity in terms of bits per second) equals higher memory performance. This is why the memory bus is so much more important than the amount of RAM. This bus is not in relation with other busses e.g PCI-Express bus.
Memory Types - Memory comes in two main categories: DDR and GDDR. The difference is only manufacturing technology. GDDR is better.
Clock Speed - Have a direct impact on memory performance. Clock speed isn't everything. It should be noted that the graphics processor speed and memory speed are completely separate, and are usually run at different settings. The memory bus in relation to clock has a greater impact on performance.
Multi-Card Solutions - Using multiple graphics cards together provides sufficient graphics performance to support highest visual quality settings and resolutions. Multi-card solutions require a great deal of energy. But two cards thas not mean doubled performance. Overall performance impact can be very small. Multi-card solutions usually don't make sense when using cheaper graphics cards, because a more expensive card will almost always outperform a pair of cheaper ones, but this solutions do not make sense for most consumers.
Nvidia's SLI - Scalable Link Interface is a multi-GPU technology developed by Nvidia for linking two or more video cards together to produce a single output.
ATI's Crossfire - Crossfire is the name for a multi-GPU solution from ATI. Crossfire technology is a direct competitor to NVIDIA SLI.
Visual Features - Different generations and models of graphics processors may use entirely different feature sets. Examples of some visual features are:
Microsoft's DirectX & Shader Model - DirectX is Microsoft's creation. In reality, DirectX is a collection of APIs, only one of which is for 3D graphics. DirectX includes APIs for sound, music, input devices and media, and other less significant. The specific DirectX API that applies to 3D graphics is called Direct3D, but when referring specifically to graphics cards, it is generally understood that the terms DirectX and Direct3D are used interchangeably.
The DirectX suite of programming environments dates back to the Windows 95 operating system (version 1), and has a significant breakthrough in the capabilities of the version for Windows XP (version 9), and later versions are further complemented by features especially graphics. Windows 10 uses version 12 that allows graphics cards to relaunch relatively simple objects, if needed, into considerably more complicated structures. Of course, the performance of the graphics card must follow the changes in this programming environment.
HDR Lighting & OpenEXR HDR - HDR stands for 'High Dynamic Range'. A video game with HDR lighting has the ability to display a much more realistic image than a game without HDR, and not all graphics cards are able to display HDR graphics. HDR lighting allows increased contrast (darker and brighter than usual), while at the same time increasing the amount of lighting detail displayed in both the dark and bright areas.
Anti-Aliasing - Term to describe jagged or blocky patterns associated with displaying digital images. In the case of graphics, it refers to the inherent stair-likeness of angular edges when displayed on the monitor. Anti-aliasing is a graphics feature that reduces this effect. However, since anti-aliasing calculations use a fair amount of graphics processor power, enabling it will cause a significant drop in frame rates. Anti-aliasing technology relies heavily on graphics memory performance, so high performance graphics cards with high performance memory will be able to use anti-aliasing with less of a performance hit than low-end graphics cards.
Texture Filtering - All 3D objects in a video game are textured, and as the viewing angle of a displayed texture increases, the texture will appear more and more blurry and distorted in the game. To combat this effect, texture filtering was introduced for graphics processors.
High Definition Texture Sets - All 3D video games are developed with target specifications, and one of these specifications is the amount of texture memory the game will require. All of the required textures must fit into graphics card memory while playing, otherwise performance will be heavily taxed, as the extra textures required will have to be stored in slower system RAM, or even on the hard disk. Newer games often support multiple texture sets, so that the game will support older graphics cards with less texture memory, in addition to the newest graphics cards with the most onboard memory. For example, a game might include three texture sets: for 128 MB, 256 MB and for 512 MB of graphics memory. Games that support 512 MB of graphics card memory or more of them are already present, and there is a reason to buy a graphics card with much more memory. More memory generally has a relatively minor effect on raw performance, but can increase visual quality considerably if the game supports it.
Description of the graphics card was downloaded from the site 'Tom's Hardware' (http://www.tomshardware.com/, section /reviews/graphics-beginners,1288.html), by author Don Woligroski, created in 2006 on multiple pages. Here is a smaller part of the entire content, and if you are interested in more detail, I recommend visiting the mentioned site. A very interesting site is 'Gamesear' (https://www.gamesear.com/), compatible with mobile devices and protected by SSL features, that deals with description and review of games. It is worth visiting, especially in the field of news.
As in any case, it is apparent from the description that the graphics card (GPU) performs a very complex job, and it is no surprise that the number of transistor units is more than the CPU. Graphics card is one of the biggest energy consumers in the computer and is probably one of the largest devices. And the price is part of the expensive component. To conclude, today's graphics cards using these technologies give very realistic views, and it's no surprise that more and more people love to play, including me.
One of the popular on-line game (gaming over network) is 'WoT', shown in the next movie.
Figure 6. The client-server play of 'World of Tanks'.
'World of Tanks' (WoT) is a massively multiplayer online internet game developed in 2010. 'WoT' has been ported to multiple gaming consoles, what significantly contributes to the popularity of this game. Is playing for free, basically, but if you want a better armor or something else - pay it! And it works perfectly. Earnings are huge. The same goes for the game 'World of Warships'.
Figure 7. The client-server play of 'World of Warships'.
All described refers to games supported by computers and servers in a shared work over internet. But modern electronics with its miniaturization and even lower price make it possible to use 'computers' in toys. This is a topic related to the next commercial film.
Figure** 8. Revell Control Battle Game - 24224.
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In Figure 8b shows the inside of the tank (toy). The main elements of control are electric motors; EM1-O1 the right-hand drive wheel electric motor, EM2-O2 the left-hand drive wheel electric motor, EM3 electric motor of tank dome, 4×LED indicators and Z speaker for acoustic effects.
Figure 8c shows the control electronics of the tank characterized by four integrated circuits; C1 - MX1508 remote controller, C2 - MX08E transceiver (transmitter and receiver), C3 - AX-1S programming RAM and various of communication protocols interface, i C4 - TRSP5042A Speech DAC (DA-converter). Of course, similar electronics are built into the remote control of gamer.
It is not necessary to use a computer or microelectronics just for playing. There are a lot of 'games' that have an educational character. But also toys that do not 'shoot' each other as in the previous example. One of them is an interactive map of the world shown in the following Figure.
Figure 10. Interactive map of World.
This map allows for a geographic entertainment. Talks when the child pressed something on it. 1000 facts and quiz questions about the countries of the world:
settings and monuments
It covers 78 active countries, quiz with two levels, challenge mode for two players with scores and can be mounted on the wall or placed on the floor. Educational electronics toy.