PCI-Express 3.0 Motherboard - Chipset Intel X79

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Technology development, particularly in reducing the size of the elementary unit of transistors, making a powerful processor (CPU) and graphics (GPU) integrated circuits. Striving to increase the bandwidth between the individual components computers has led to a further improvement of the concept shown in the example VII of this Chapter. The development of highly complex games, and graphics that are becoming more demanding and processor in the newer design that supports multi-processor systems is one of the incentives under the new design. This should join the trend of Design PC as a multimedia platform, which essentially means the efficient processing of video content. Addition to your will come and applications designed for scientific purposes, as well as server platforms widespread and growing application of the concept of virtual machines. Without an effective CPU power network simulator and network devices, for example, is almost unusable. Thus, increasing the processing power, computer software and professional supplies will become much more efficient. The following example shows the motherboard and INTEL microprocessor company, type 'Core i7' as the basis for a powerful PC.

Multiprocessor systems in a single chassis, more precisely with each other physically and logically linked processor cores into a single functional unit, each of which simultaneously handles two series (thread) instruction, stem from the inability to increase the effective clock speed of processors without major overheating as a result. The operating system of each logical processor cores (Hyper-Threading Technology - HTT) is recognized as a separate processor. Improved concept allows increasing operating frequency of individual components, increase operating frequency of the processor (unlocked multiplier) and an increase in operating voltage electronic circuits faster about 'flight' of electrons through the elements of the integrated circuit, and hence increase the performance of the system as a whole (a procedure called overclocking), which is closely linked s way of cooling components. But violent increase in performance over the factory specification can lead to unpredictable and irreparable damage to your computer. Temperature was and still is the main limiting factor regarding the increase of overall system performance. Indicated possible changes in the basic system settings in the BIOS.

Reducing the size of elementary transistors with 45 nm technology to smaller and lesser total area, and improving the technology of their preparation (Tri-Gate, or 3D transistors) the reduction of uncontrolled 'leaks' in the current state of non-performance (leakage), reduces the flow path electrons through transistors and the passage of time between the electrodes. Control voltage at which the 3D transistor begins to conduct electricity causing reduced considerably accelerates the time of transition from the state of the transistor conducting current in the current state of non-performance. These two transistors operating states have the smallest effect with regard to heat dissipation transistors, and faster transition from the current flow through the state because of failure to implement significant shorter retention transistors in a transient state of the transistor in which the dissipation effect is considerable. The result is better performance and much less heat. Generation of microprocessor company Intel-based 32 nm 'Sandy Bridge' and 22 nm 'Ivy Bridge' microarchitecture (Figure 3.5.30) and delivering advanced technology of transistors, providing up to 50% better than its original characteristics. Particularly great progress made towards curbing big spending microprocessors. Despite being at the bottom of the motherboard below the top of the stand microprocessors, there is a metal reinforcement (similar concept BTX), which largely prevents bending of the base microprocessor from warming.

Example VIII

Efficient support for multi-core microprocessor family from INTEL for demanding home, office or scientific use a motherboard with a chipset for INTEL x79 microprocessors like 'Intel Core i7' and 'Intel Xeon' intended for LGA 2011 socket, made in 32 nm 'Sandy Bridge' technology, the successor to the X48 (Figure 3.5.26a) and X58 concept (Figure 3.5.26c). Set logic chipsets commonly divided into two parts: 'North Bridge' (MCH / IOH) and 'South Bridge' (ICH), it is modified in such a way that the entire MCH incorporated into the processor that is associated with a single chip a (PCH - Platform Controller Hub) that performs similar tasks ICH chip-in. The ability to use 'Xeon' PC microprocessor puts on par with the Apple Mac Pro 'computers that use these processors by default. The ability to use 'ECC' or 'non-ECC' memory modules indicates that this motherboard can well serve as a server platform.

 Chipset Intel x79 - block scheme
Figure** 3.5.29 Block diagram of Intel x79 & x99 chipset / Intel DX79SI motherboard.( + / - )

Motherboard, rather alone printed circuit board (PCB - Printed Circuit Board) is made of eight layers, which makes it a technologically demanding than the older six layered relatives and ultimately more expensive. Almost can not even make out the lines that contain layers. Components incorporated some chipsets are common for this family of motherboards. Animated signs are complementary sequence that would roughly match the sequence of activation of individual circuits and devices on the motherboard switch on the computer. The following table describes the composition and features are shown motherboards:

Form Factor ATX (304.80mm × 243.84mm)
BIOS 64 Mb Flash EEPROM.
Intel® BIOS resident in the SPI Flash device:
   - ACPI (Advanced Configuration and Power Interface)
   - PnP (Plug and Play)
   - SMBIOS (System Management BIOS)
Processor with Intel®
64-bit architecture
Intel® Core™ i7 Sandy Bridge-E; 32 nm technology.
Intel® Xeon® processors; 32 nm technology.
Processor TDP 95 - 130 W
Processor socket LGA 2011
Chipset Intel® X79 Express Chipset:
   - Platform Controller Hub (PCH)
Chipset Lithography 65 nm
Clock Generator Silego* SLG505YC264CT / PLL (Phase-Locked Loop) with crystal
Legacy I/O Control Nuvoton* legacy I/O controller (Winbond W83677HG-i)
Additional I/O Control No
Integrated Graphics No
External Graphics Flexible support for:
   - ATI* CrossfireX* technology
   - NVIDIA* SLI* technology
Memory - Max. Supported 64 GB (4 × 240 pin SDRAM Dual Inline Memory Module - DIMM)
Memory Frequency Four channel ECC and non-ECC memory
1066/1333/1600/1866/2133/2400 MHz (4 DIMM)
Support for XMP (Extensible Metadata Platform) memory
for DIMM modules above 1600 Mhz.
Audio 8-channel (7.1) Dolby Home Theater*
audio subsystem with five analog audio outputs
and two S/PDIF digital audio outputs
(coaxial and optical) - RealTek* ALC892 codec
S/PDIF 1 optical port + 1 onboard 3-pin connector
LAN Controllers: (two ports) Gigabit (10/100/1000 Mb/s) LAN subsystem:
   - Intel® 82579L Gigabit Ethernet Controller
   - Intel® 82574L Gigabit Ethernet Controller
USB Connectors 2.0 14 (6 external ports + 8 onboard connectors)
USB Connectors 3.0 4 (2 external ports + 2 onboard connectors) / NEC D720200AF1
PCI slot 1
PCI Express 3.0 x16 slot 3 (2 +1 switchable to x8 electrical)
PCI Express 2.0 x1 slot 2
SATA (ports) 6 (4 × 3 Gb/s per port + 2 × 6 Gb/s per port)
eSATA port with RAID (ports) No
PATA (ports) No
PS/2 No
IEEE-1394a Ports (PCH) 1 + 1 onboard connector (Texas Instruments* TSB43AB22A)
Intelligent Power Technology Shared cache - CHiL chl8326
Smart Response Technology Yes (RAID 0, RAID 1, RAID 0+1 or RAID 10, RAID 5) with PCH
System Responsiveness No
Hyper-Threading support Yes
Intel® Express BIOS Update Yes

A variety of different products from other companies that serve a variety of peripherals. It is therefore not surprising that large firms buying small to be 'got hold' of their patents and long term reduce manufacturing costs, or avoid costs of court litigation regarding breach license terms. Although there are no PS/2, parallel and serial ports chipset supports them. Support for SATA communication is completely omitted. It seems that the communication between PATA devices 'retired', but there are manufacturers who produce PCI or PCI-E cards that contain just mentioned components in the event that there is a need to communicate with a device just by onetime standards.

Displayed motherboard uses four channels of memory (A, B, C, D) with two slots for each channel. The memory controller supports four independent memory channels:

The memory maps are shown in the following table:

Address Range (dec) Address Range (hex) Size Description
1024 K - 67100672 K 100000 - FFFFFFFFFH 65528 MB Extended memory
960 K - 1024 K F0000 - FFFFF 64 kB Runtime BIOS
896 K - 960 K E0000 - EFFFF 64 kB Reserved
800 K - 896 K C8000 - DFFFF 96 kB Potential available high DOS memory
(open to the PCI Conventional bus).
Dependent on video adapter used.
640 K - 800 K A0000 - C7FFF 160 kB Video memory and BIOS
639 K - 640 K 9FC00 - 9FFFF 1 kB Extended BIOS data
(movable by memory manager )
512 K - 639 K 80000 - 9FBFF 127 kB Extended conventional memory
0 K - 512 K 00000 - 7FFFF 512 kB Conventional memory

Displayed memory folders corresponding memory map that is shown in Figure 3.5.14, which is clearly marked boundaries XMS memory of 4 GB for xxx86 family of microprocessors. Accordingly in the development and design of the motherboard which is a requirement for more memory space is sufficient. Circuits x79 motherboards allow avoiding overlapping memory address according to the map defined by conventional I / O logic an address scheme. Creates a new folder, which includes the physical memory area after conventional limit of 4 GB, and logical conversion is done in order to reach locations following specified limits, of course, with an operating system that is able to address more than 4 GB of memory. In addition to the foregoing, the graphics card must properly recognize the specified memory scheme in order to be able to properly monitor computers running older applications. In this sense, the graphics card must meet compatibility with EGA, CGA and MDA standards, which means that all the DOS program running on neat 'dissipate'. Many 'good' graphics card does not meet the above.

Increasing the number of 32-bit physical addressing the operating system (PAE - Physical Address Expansion) regarding the reach of RAM memory locations are possible if the number of bits that the core of the operating system used extend from 32 to 36, and thus enables the retrieval of up to 64 GB of physical memory. It provides all the Windows Vista OS, Mac OS X and newer versions of the Linux kernel, using processors that support this (Intel Pentium Pro and newer, for example). Windows XP mimics this possibility, but the record is starting file 'boot.ini' should be defined, while a 64-bit operating systems specified term is not necessary. Thus, retrieval of physical memory above 4 GB must allow the microprocessor, motherboard (chipset and BIOS) and the operating system. If any of the above specified assemblies Computer does not support, access physical memory beyond the conventional limits of 4 GB is not possible. As this requires the ability of software to know how to use this option in 32-bit versions of Windows XP operating system with Microsoft AWE API (Address Windowing Extensions), this feature of the 32-bit Windows XP systems and not just of importance. Specifically, 32-bit Windows XP operating system can be used around 3.25 to 3.50 GB of memory while the eventual 'excess' memory can take advantage of the RAM-Disk or to another program support specialist who knows how to use working memory over the specified limit. Windows core server versions of the OS has a different concept described is not a problem.

Processor 'Intel - Core i7 Sandy Bridge Extreme' is basically six core CPU with socket LGA 2011 (2011 terminals in the socket), produced in 32 nm technology. The successor to the eponymous processor 'Core i7 - Nehalem' made in 45 nm technology for socket LGA 1366 shown in Figure 3.5.30c, which includes for each core 64 kB L1 cache memory (32 kB for instruction + 32 kB for data) and 256 kB L2 buffer, executive core logic, the logic for predicting branching and other parts of the nuclear architecture. The core is available 8 MB shared L3 cache memory, as well as three-channel (Triple-Channel) DDR 3 memory controller with Quick Path Interconnect (QPI) architecture that replaces the concept of FSB 64-bit bi-directional point-to-point bus primarily intended for connection to 'North Bridge' memory management system. In addition to the new architecture and integrated memory controller, 'Core i7 - Nehalem' my speed started with integrated L3 cache (cache) common to all processor cores and Hyper-Threading (HT) technology, eight simultaneous worker threads / strings / streams on four of the nuclear-chip (SMT - Simultaneous Multi-Threading), and 'Turbo Boost' concept for dynamic overclocking. Says 40% percent faster video encoding compared to the 'Core 2' concept. More precisely, it is a microprocessor-based system that can support 2-8 cores and consequently 4-16 streams to transfer data using SMT, designed for server and more powerful PC platform, the operating system is as twice the number of logical cores than physical core microprocessors . HT basically allows you to perform multiple tasks simultaneously-process and thereby shorten the response time to execute some commands and tasks.

Processor is used in home computers with a motherboard based on the 'X58' chipset and uses the integrated two extra rounds, 'Nort Bridge - MCH' and 'South Bridge - ICH' with the first of these took care of the graphical approach system (Figure 3.5.26c). Memory system is accessed through the controllers blend in the processor, and the graphics system via MCH. Further advancement of technology has enabled significantly reducing the size of transistors and elementary, and its consumption was originally a graphic control system has been moved into the processor in the version with 'Sandy Bridge' 32 nm technology, as shown in the description of the wafer shown in Figure 3.5.30d. In Figure 3.5.30 shows the 'Core i7' done in 32 nm technology with socket LGA 2011 (second generation 'Core i7') and his successor in 22 nm technology with socket LGA 1155 (third generation 'Core i7'). The difference in size is significant. Besides reduced consumption of transistors and allow the installation of additional circuits and the 22 nm version of the physical and logical crafted graphics system, as opposed to the concept of Q57 where the processor and graphics system are completely separated.

 Intel Core i7 processors  

Figure*** 3.5.30 Core i7 Processor family (22 nm, 32 nm, 45 nm). ( + / - )  

Along with 'Sandy Bridge' 32 nm process technology, the base of the 2011 processor's pin occupies more space compared to the old design (LGA 775), contains the aforementioned 1.16 billion transistors on a silicon plate measuring 212 mm2. Therefore, the larger, adequate cooling is greater, and PINs are not round which allows their greater density and smaller distances between each other, only 0.4 mm (Figure 3.5.30b). Number of PINs was increased due to the need to increase the memory slots lines, and heat developed during operation causes the bending of the substrate. The original TDP (Thermal Design Power) of 130 watts of power is not negligible size and heat developed during operation should be cooled using effectively absorb and 'drag'. But 'Ivy Bridge' 22 nm technologies, at the socket of 1155 pin CPU's, enabled half the TDP with the 1.4 billion transistors on a silicon plate surface area of 160 mm2 and a lot more functionality, and the largest microprocessor is almost as big as the 'Core 2' stool for socket LGA 755, completely new design is incompatible with existing solutions, which means that it is impossible to upgrade older systems (buy everything new!). Multiple versions of the core processor to the original concept of the 'Core i7 - Nehalem' microprocessor (Figure 3.5.30c) because they contain advanced control at the external graphics device for computers and its own integrated graphics system. In Figure 3.5.31 because they contain advanced control at the external graphics subsystem integrated computer and your own graphics system. In Figure 3.5.31 shows the version of the motherboard for Intel 'Core i7' made in 22 nm technology for a socket LGA 1155.

As I was the original 'Core i7' Nehalem microarchitecture, shown in Figure 3.5.30c, primarily developed with the intention of use in multiprocessor and server environment, QPI (Quick Path Interconnect) concept has a great foundation. Depending on the market, the number of cores and / or processors, the microprocessor will be available in versions with one or more of the QPI bus connecting the processor to other processors in the system and the processor with the chipset, each with a bandwidth up to 25 GBps New versions of the Windows operating system type and OS X are designed to be set to use.

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According to the above, it was expected that the manufacturing process for microprocessors 'Core i7', produced in 32 nm technology and socket LGA 2011 (second generation 'Core i7), to modernize and result of further development of the microprocessor are 'Extreme Edition' products - Ivy Bridge E (22 nm technology of third generation). Of course, it is a type of XEON microprocessors that are primarily intended for server systems, and do not contain graphics subsystem. But contains full support for PCI-Express v3.0 and DDR3 random access memory with a clock speed of 1866 MHz. New microprocessors used still X79 chipset, which will require a small upgrade of BIOS. Microprocessor contains four to six cores and up to 15 MB L3 cache.

With regard to the above, the successor to described is the chipset X99 series (32 nm lithography) that fully supports fourth-generation processors for the LGA 2011 socket (v3), enhanced PCIe bus (gen. 2), DDR4 memory type and fourth generation of 'Core i7 Extreme Edition' - Haswell E microprocessors (up to 8 cores, up to 20 MB L3 Cache, operating frequency up to 3.50 GHz, 22 nm lithography). Block diagram of X99 virtually indistinguishable from above except that it has a new feature 'Intel Management Engine Firmware 9.1 and BIOS support' and enhanced capabilities. Chipset also enables overclocking features of unlocked 4th and 5th generation Intel® Core™ processors. Possibilities of X99 chipset best describes the Figure 3.5.29c. So it is not a home 'toy', but that's to be mentioned. Price? Great!


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Radic, Drago. " IT - Informatics Alphabet " Split-Croatia.
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