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 Glossary  Next

Term Description

Sampling and sampling rate or sampling frequency, determines the number of samples per unit of time (usually seconds) taken from a continuous signal to a discrete signal value obtained for each sample. What is the frequency of the samples increased, the credibility of converting a digital signal is better. CD record has 44'100 Hz sampling frequency, and DVD-Audio uses 96'000 Hz. Video recording using the name 'frame rate', the number of pictures per unit of time, which indicates the value of 50/60 Hz (PAL/NTSC). From the above it is clear that the sampling frequency of pixels in a computer is significantly higher and is about 13.5 MHz.
SAO Session-at-once - It is used for making CD-EXTRA copy. Audio portion was recorded on the medium using DAO recording mode. Then the session closes, the laser is turned off, and the second part with the data (new session) is recorded using the TAO mode. This is commonly used in audio media containing videos and can be used on a computer and music devices. The majority of software and devices for recording media supports this way of recording a CD.
SATA Serial Advanced Technology Attachment - High-speed synchronous serial data transfer between computers and data storage devices like hard disk and optical devices based on full duplex communication, simultaneous two-way exchange of data through two separate channels. In addition to the above changes to the device during active operation of the computer (hot swapping). Uses standard AHCI about the possibility of the use of advanced communications technologies (such as NCQ - Native Command Queuing). Control electronics can emulate IDE mode (ATA compatible) and thus enable the older operating systems that do not have SATA drivers to use the devices for data storage. The peculiarity of emulation must be set in the BIOS of computers and almost all computers specified support. The cable length can be up to 100 cm.

Program support within the operating system, or later installed, which after a specified time period (typically 5-10 minutes) on the screen, instead of the previously active view displays content drawn randomly. The purpose of this is to prevent prolonged illumination of individual pixels the same picture with the same intensity, which then manifests as the silhouette of a continuous 'loaded' images. Particularly unsuitable facilities like TV Channel logo, which is fixed in size, and always in the same place. At this 'printing' images on the screen are especially sensitive to RGB monitors that use active triode phosphor elements, the cathode ray tube.
SDRAM Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory - Performance RAM hardware device that is similar to DRAM, that requires periodic refresh of content, but the organization of registration and reading of data and speed of operation in line with the speed of the bus speed of computers and microprocessors.
Sensor The sensing device or program that has the task of sending the data to the receiver (simplex), and sometimes receive data from it (duplex) on the handling of him. The measurement technique and oversight are devices that alter the physical, electrical or other properties in accordance with the environment under which the monitor waits receiving system determines the appropriate action. Thus, for example, can monitor twisting hull, engine rotation speed or temperature changes, and changes can be displayed on-screen user or a user of some other signs, or other devices to automatically take action in accordance with the data obtained from the sensor.
Server A computer that functions as a server. Although each computer in the network to a greater or lesser extent, servers, because it is possible to get over it give printing service environment closer, the server is usually thought that the computer environment offers a variety of services and hardware device that is designed in a way that works continuously to failure and has built-in redundant circuits for key functions such as power supplies, RAID disk system, working memory parity checking data and the like. So in the event of a failure of the device can continue to operate and maintain functionality. Quality of circuits that are built into servers is therefore an order of magnitude greater, and thus of course its price.
Service pack

Self-installable set of patches that incorporates additions of software over time and incorporated into the basic program support primarily removes all errors encountered, and often brings some new features that make the software product quality. Basically SP can be incorporated into the core product distribution (procedure called Slipstreaming).
SGI Silicon Graphics, Inc. - Commonly used name for SGI, although sometimes uses the name 'Silicon Graphics Computer Systems' or SGCS, a manufacturer of high-performance computing solutions, including computer hardware and software. They used a system with microprocessors mainly from companies Motorola, AMD and Intel, and the workstations are generally used Linux, Windows and Mac OS X operating systems. Graphic cells produce high-performance servers, supercomputers and data centers, and are known for the fact that their products are happy using the film industry. Silicon Graphics and Industrial Light and Magic (Lucasfilm), the famed film by special effects, have joined forces to create a superior sophisticated special effects; Trilogy 'Star Wars', 'Terminator 2', 'Jurassic Park', 'Abyss' and animation in many cartoons.
SHA-1 Secure Hashing Algorithm 1 - The algorithm uses messages of less than 264 bits and produces a 160-bit message as necessary signature. Message size of 160 bits, compared to 128 bits for MD5, provides greater security against violent attacks on the servers for any unauthorized use of your account. SHA-1 is revision of SHA published in 1994. year.
SID Security IDentifier - Unique identification number assigned to the Windows NT family operating system assigns each computer when you install the operating system by generating a random number. The same number belong to users in a group of users in the network and their files, and thus determines their unambiguous identification. SID has the format {S-x-y-ss-llllllllll-llllllllll-lllllllll-rrrr} where 'x' number of versions of the specification, 'y' number assigned to respect authority (local or otherwise), 'ss' is the numeric identifier of the security , 'llll ...' the numerical designation of the local computer and 'rrrr' is a number that indicates the Relative ID (=>1000) and describes a group of users. If two computers on the network have the same SID, originated when using computer programs to create and restore images with multiple partitions on a group of computer installations of the same series, a small program (NewSID - SID random number generator) each cloned computer to change the number to avoid unauthorized access to data from one computer to another. The operating system registry records multitude of type SID.
Simplex Way traffic communication channel, which is mainly used to distribute radio and television content. The user can only receive messages and can not respond nor is there a mechanism for correcting any errors on admission. Send voice or image content via a computer network also uses a protocol that has no mechanism for correcting errors (UDP).
Single point
of failure
Refer to the 'One point of failure'.
Smiley Signs describing the mood in a text message (see under 'emotions').
Socket Couple PORT and IP address of the SOCKET, end connection points in the communication between computers in the network with respect to use of the software for the same purpose. In the TCP / IP model, it is the uppermost layer of the bottom, and the OSI model is in the fifth layer.
SOA Start Of Authority - Record type that is used in the DNS (Domain Name System) servers. Each domain has an SOA record as a database describing the basic properties of the domain and the domain zone. The SOA record contains the server name, serial number, zone, refresh interval records the master servers and data CNAME (Canonical Name), or the names of resources allocated to particular services of server. It also contains information that describes the relationship between the computer's IP address and its associated domain name.
SoC System on Chip - Integrated circuit (IC) that contains all components of a computer or other electronic system into chip at single substrate. Very common in the mobile electronics market because of their low power consumption. A typical application is in the area of embedded systems.
Software Counterpart for the 'Hardware'. Refers to a computer program support without which the computer is really a bunch of iron and can only be used as a 'weapon' if the cast from the top of the building. Software product is the intellectual efforts of developers who seek to make your computer more usable through the operating system on which the 'lean' software products usable as text editors, spreadsheets, databases, games, various utilities, and more. Software for PC compatible computers eventually came soaring.
SOHO Small Office / Home Office - Office or home computer network to the Internet operates independently or geographic projection with another network with which it communicates using the existing Internet infrastructure with or unencrypted traffic. Something similar to the PAN.
Spam In the world of of informatics is primarily related to the recipient of unwanted or irrelevant e-mails that are sent to multiple addresses are randomly selected networks or the address of a thematic groups on USENET network. In layman's terms it is 'garbage' and modern servers within the servicing of sending and receiving e-mail have a mechanism to remove the same, that does not automatically delivered to the user. The name was created from content skit about meat tins from the English comedy series created by Monty Python.
Spoofing A leaping method computer program, in which an offensive program with the user changed the data so that it appears to work normally and thus circumvented the security mechanism. Fudges the actual address of the user actions and redirect it to another where such acts as the Web interface pages of his bank.
SQL Structured Query Language - Programming language that is used to work with relational databases (RDBMS - Relational Database Management System), allows users to define the structure and organization of the stored data, testing and maintenance of data integrity, access control, and defining relationships between the stored data. The main function of SQL is retrieving data from the database by the user or application program. User or application program can update the database (add, delete, or modify data). SQL is a fourth generation language computer program support, which allows the computer to say what we want to get from the database without any given computer system in order to do so.
SRAM Static Random Access Memory - Working memory that uses logic circuit designed at least four transistors connected as a 'flip-flop'. Does not require refreshing to maintain data, and because of feedback between transistors significantly shortens the time required to change the state from '0' to '1' and vice versa. Therefore, the speed of writing and reading of data about a thousand times smaller than the DRAM type memory. Because of this these types of memory used in the processor as L1 and L2 caches, as well as the cache disk and optical devices. Due to the large number of specimens of electronic data processing in relation to the dynamic memory, is much more expensive and larger in size, and are usually not used as the main working memory of a computer.
SSD Solid-State Disk / Solid-State Drive - Although it is not on the disc, the name is sometimes used because the device performs the functionality of the hard drive, but consists entirely of electronic components similar working memory. The computer 'sees' as a hard disk. With no moving parts total security of data loss drastically increases the stresses on the physical device.
SSH Secure Shell - Software which use the protocol that operate using a reliable transport layer, such as TCP / IP, and provides strong authentication and encryption of data. Ware system is divided into client and server side. Many network devices support this mode of communication that is often limited to security in terms of supporting up to five SSH clients for simultaneous access via the console device.
SSL Secure Socket Layer - Encryption technologies in Web environment that is used for secure transactions, such as the transmission of credit card numbers for e-business, data in remote server administration via web interface and so on. That version of the HTTP protocol that uses this peculiarity labeled HTTPS.
Standard A concrete example of specification of a device or process which is used to compare all other similar devices or procedures with her. The application of standards is recommended to ensure wide applicability and effectiveness of specific technical solutions.


Waiting - The characteristic is based on the Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (ACPI) specification, an open standard used by operating systems and devices relating to the management of their computer configuration and consumption. Established in 1996. its aim was that after a given time, individual devices on or off, or only work with basic functionality, while the conditions are created for their full use. This peculiarity is important for notebook computers active in extending the battery time. The following seven system state | G0 (S0) - normal activity without restriction | G1 with the states: S1 - CPU and RAM, but do not execute processes, S2 - CPU is off, S3 - The computer 'sleep', and only works RAM preserves the content, S4 - hibernate in which the RAM goes by overwriting its contents to another location | G2 (S5) - almost all appliances are switched off except for those who can run the computer as a network card, mouse or keyboard | G3 (S6) - complete mechanical device off the main switch.
Streaming The name for the technology transfer video, audio or other multimedia content over the network. It basically means to play immediately upon receiving the signal. It basically means to play immediately upon receiving the signal, and play immediately upon receipt of of the first IP packet, thus further reproduction based on the sequence of packets that arrive. It is clear that such communication requires a relatively fast and stable connection. Hence names web-radio and web-TV. Due to the volume of multimedia content is usually a compressed file using the appropriate 'codec'.
Switch Device that operates on the third or the second layer of the OSI model. If it is designed for the third layer is usually more used as the core communications system facilities to direct traffic to individual entities (units). In this case, defining the redundant paths in case of failure of any of them. They were lean distribution switches that direct traffic to the end user. Switching feature is that it can establish a separate virtual paths between two computers connected to it in a way that their combined turnover does not disturb the other connected computers as a precursor of switch - HUB can not.
Syntax The syntax is part of the science of language is studied on the basis of the principles which form a sentence of words as complete units oral or written communication. Syntax still studying the proper arrangement of words in a sentence. So science and IT should respect the rules of writing the operating system commands, rows in your source code or web pages. More..

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