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 Glossary  Next

Term Description
CA Certification Authority - Registration Authority, the Institution of confidence that declares and/or revoking digital certificates. Sometimes referred to as an institution with a notary or a certification authority. Within one CA areas, each device or service needs to have one certificate for their own use of public key and certificate regarding authentication to other devices in the domain. Registration Authority in charge of establishing the identity of the participants in the Croatian Academic Research Network is CARNet.
Cache Quick temporary memory, the place in which some information is temporarily stored. There is a microprocessor hard drive and optical drive in the form of fast cache memory and most devices that deals with storing and processing data. Not only be a firmware solution. Web pages that are stored in a visit to the directory on disk to speed up their reading during the follow-up visit.
Cannibalization Cannibal - a person who eats human flesh, man-eater. The custom of the tribes of the Pacific Islands and in certain African tribes. In our area originated the term 'cannibalization' which essentially means to destroy one to make way more. So, when you get out of one or more computers are removed correct parts to make the another computer to work, either permanently or on trial. The process is unfortunately common when there are no spare parts.
CCITT Comite Consultatif Internationale de Telegraphique et Telephonique - An international organization that brings the rules, standards and recommendations in the field of telecommunications. Its origins date back to work since 1865. , headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. After 1992. became a coordinating body for standard called ITU (International Telecommunication Union). After each plenary assembly to publish sets of recommendations in the form of a set of specific color book covers for example publications Assembly after the 1980th years were with YELLOW covers until after the 1984th The color was RED cover and since 1988. The BLUE is the color of the book cover.
CD Copmact Disk - Optical medium originally intended for 'printing' audio in 16 bit digital format term with a sampling frequency of 44.1 kHz. in which he could store about 70 minutes of music content. To read the media uses an infrared laser beam. Records are placed in one continuous spiral track that is read from the inside to the outside. Standard was later extended for use in a computer to store data and have developed version of the write-once (CD-R) and rewritable (CD-RW). Regarding writing is necessary to have a stronger laser beam and technologies of the media is different. The medium has a diameter of 12 cm. Disk capacity is 700 MB. There are also versions of 8 cm (Mini CD, with 210 MB).
Centronics Name of a parallel interface which is mostly used to connect the printer and scanner to the computer. This form of communication with peripherals suppresses the growth in the USB communication interface, faster and easier than this. This interface is named after the company 'Centronics' ga which was developed and subsequently adopted as an IEEE standard.
CGI Common Gateway Interface - Executable program as a result of compiling script is used to create an interface that allows for quick creation of a web page type personal pages, visits counter, forum, etc., and enables completing forms, checkboxes, text insertion, and the like. Web server data that the user entered the website of a particular program that teaches them processed and the results returned to the Web server, which incorporate them into the web page that is sent to the user. CGI program written in any of the language processors such as C, C++, Perl, Java, JavaScript and others. CGI programs on the Web server, usually located in [cgi-bin] directory.
CGI Computer Generated Image - A term that indicates that the computer is used to create images or animations. Generate images and animation to become more present in the film industry. Very convincing application of the movies in the series 'Jurassic Park'.
Standardized set of characters that the paper uses a computer and a characteristic of a region. Past practice has been to use the 8 bit code swap, of which the first 128 characters of the ASCII standard and other needs of the 128 region. Gradually Unicode unifies the diversity between different climate as it encompasses multiple characters as it uses 16 bit or 32 bit code to replace, depending on the operating system.
Checksum Method of checking the integrity of data. Before sending data calculated on the basis of processing a series of arithmetic operations octet checksum is added to the header of a data packet to send. Upon receiving the data again this sum is calculated and compared with the entered value received in the packet header regarding verification.
Chip Integrated circuit - Represents a complex set of interconnected semiconductor elements in order to perform certain tasks. According to usage could be generally divided into groups for analog signal processing and group processing of digital data. The first group has listed the most common use in commercial music players, and the other group usually associated with computers. In measuring purposes will use integrated circuits are capable of converting analog values in binary data and vice versa. In computer technology electronic components are designed and connected in such a way that they are able to perform arithmetic operations in the binary system of numbers, keep the data necessary to process and exchange them with each other or other special assignments. It is a monolithic semiconductor wafer, processed complex technological processes, which are then placed in the casing and electrically connected to the casing pins. More..
ChipSet A set of integrated circuits that controls the computer system and monitor its performance. All components communicate with the processor via chipsets. That is the essence of all the data. The chipset uses the DMA controller and the control bus to arrange a steady flow of data to devices connected directly to the motherboard or its slots, and basic circuitry is usually the second largest next to the processor. There are soldered to the motherboard and not upgradeable.
Mechanism (algorithm) for encryption and decryption of data for the purpose of protecting them from unauthorized use. So, if it is referred to it is the unreadable data to be decrypted in order to be usable.
CISC Complex Instruction Set Computer - Processor architecture that uses as many different and complex commands. Commands are executed quickly because the logic circuits microprocessor complex and thus is more expensive production. It is harder to produce a new generation of microprocessors and relatively small percentage of used commands frequently over time (below 50%). The most famous products of this kind are the Intel x86 microprocessors and Motorola 680xx series. Newer processors use RISC core, which when translated into CISC RISC, and the execution of instructions achieve better performance.
Cisco One of the largest manufacturers of active network equipment for networking of large entities. Because this kind of network equipment requires a certain knowledge of the configuration, which is the school system can not get it set up a network of academies (like CCNA - Cisco Certified Network Associate) on the way to their programs by interested can 'open' academy if their criteria are respected, and Cisco takes just a little money for the final exam. Basically earn founders of Academy because of usually very expensive priced education.
Class Category which does feature set members of the class in an object-oriented programming. The term is also used in website design when using CSS (Cascading Style Sheets) for page formatting.
ClearText The term refers to the decrypted text and the text which is not one of the products in the process of encryption. Also called PLAIN TEXT. Procedure applies to the text that is not formatted, such as shown in HTML pages. That is, the text that is written in such NOTEPAD program subsidy is no treatment in the presentation to the user.
CLI Command Line Interface - Interface that greatly resembles the DOS operating system. In the Windows operating system of choice across {Command Prompt} window opens that allows you to work with the computer by typing commands. If the controls are added various parameters can be accomplished action that the user is most favorable, whether it is a review of the content or format a floppy disk. This part is used by more advanced users. A similar mechanism is used by network devices that are basically a set of commands using the network operating system that is built into them. Although there is a possibility to use graphical interface, CLI configuration as a mechanism network device is sacrosanct. More..
Client The client or the general user. In a client-server network architecture, a client is a computer that runs or uses program support to the server, ensure that their part of the program provides grants program supporting server orders her to work with him or take the files that are the result of the application on the server. In a simpler version of the client will be used as a storage server (archive) for your information.
The speed at which the processor can execute instructions known as cycle times. This cycle is expressed in gigahertz (GHz). 1 GHz is equal to one billion cycles per second. Faster cycle means that more instructions the CPU can execute per unit of time (seconds).
Cluster A term that describes a functional set of the same elements as a group of stars in the galaxy. Disk sectors are consolidated into the group as the smallest unit to accommodate the data that the operating system can retrieve. The term is used to mean a set of interconnected computers that are integrated to the customer are as one.
CoDec Abbreviation of COder-DECoder / COmpresor-DECompresor. If the term refers to the machine it is integrated circuit within the device (TV card, for example) is done converting the analog signal to digital and vice versa. If it comes to converting analog signals used a software program then this is a set of programs that are able to store an analog signal to one of the standard formats as MPEG-1, MPEG-2, mp3, divx, xvid and others perform compression facilities and the same records delivered to the user in a suitable form such as a video display or audio playback. Operating systems basically do not come with software for all known formats record audio and video signals.
Command Instructions, directions or order a computer device to perform certain tasks. Commands can have different forms: special, reserved or key words that the program understands the operating system, function keys, menu options and more. Rules giving the commands are called syntax. Each program corresponds to a unique set of command and the general tendency is that the client software other than a graphical interface has its counterparts to run through the appropriate commands to the parameters that the user can be defined according to their needs.
Compress Compressing data in a much smaller file. Basically it is a track that explains how many times a character sequence is repeated. Databases can have a lot of empty spaces, as for example the name and surname of the person does not always contain the same number of characters and the expected entry of up to 50 characters for name and 50 for the last name. When compressing the database can be achieved through the compression ratio and 1:20. Today's bases have already been incorporated in itself a mechanism for data compression because of the above. Binary (executable files) can not be compressed in such a great relationship.
Connection Actual path for information exchange between computers on the basis of name recognition and computer domain to which it belongs, the IP address or MAC address or modem communications, or some other mechanism. Seen from the simplest physical access to the communication cable connection between the device was.
Cookie Part of the program of aid to a dedicated directory captures information about the user. Contain such information as long as the server requires. For example, if you search for virtual stores, every time you put something in the basket, cookie information, and kept until the decision to purchase a server makes the information requested by the things they want to buy. In addition to the above mechanism is also used for the subsequent identification of the user after the first application in a system in order to further communications happen faster.
CPU Central Processing Unit - CPU organization, or just a 'processor' is a set of electronic circuits that are able to execute a computer program. In the very beginning of the computer technology, the above was a complete device size closet, and eventually execution speed increase, since the physical components used are reduced, from the transistor to the integrated circuit. Miniaturization of components and increasing the number of logical circuits within an integrated units with the result that all the required elements of the CPU in a single chip called a 'microprocessor'. The initial development of the CPU was aimed at increasing the clock speed about increased possibility of data processed per unit of time, while the current trend is towards more harmonized work CPUs specimens (parallel processing) is derived in the framework of a single case of microprocessors to a group of computers coordinated function.
CR2032 LITHIUM button cell (coin cell) batteries for a motherboard that does not charge. Held under voltage CMOS BIOS memory section in which are inscribed the basic computer settings, time, size of RAM, type of disk and optical devices, and still quite a lot of other parameters. Upon expiration computer is completely unreasonable 'crashes', often with no warning that the battery is running low, because you can not write recognize the devices during the POST process (Power-On Self Test). The battery has the following characteristics: Chemical System - Li / MnO2, Nominal Voltage - 3 V, Rated Capacity - 235 mAh, Standard Discharge Current - 0.4 mA, Maximum Continuous Discharge Current - 3 mA, Average Weight - 28 g, Temperature Range - [-30 - +70C], Self Discharge at 23C < 1% / year, diameter - 20 mm, thickness - 3.2 mm.
CRC Abbreviation of the name 'Cyclical Redudancy Check', which in essence is an algorithm for detecting errors in the data group. Each group of data is added to control or CRC data that is the result of the calculation according to the contents of the group information on the aforementioned algorithm. When the data sets together with associated CRC record sends the destination, the destination is recalculates and compares it with the CRC sent data. If the recalculation disagrees the data is considered invalid. This mechanism is used for example when writing discs and reading data from magnetic media. Similar to the above group of data that is sent is added to the Intenet FCS, control number for a group of data that is sent.

Sampling of the color signal. Sampling method chrominance image signal transmission through a communication channel using a special feature of the human eye is much more sensitive to variations in the brightness of the image rather than to variations in color, so this peculiarity taken to transmit less information, colors, and thus less data. With brightness 'Y' is transmitted and 'Cb' and 'Cr' difference of blue and red, creating 'YCbCr' color space, which is smaller compared to the analog YUV color space and basically describes how it was used to 'RGB' color space. Space that includes sampling ratio expresses the relational 'J:a:b' where 'a' and 'b' is the share of 'Cb' and 'Cr' samples 'J' set of eight pixels (two rows of four pixels in a row). So different schemes 4:4:4 (all components are sampled at the same pace) to 4:1:1. Commonly used ratio 4:2:0, then two times fewer samples 'Cb' and 'Cr' in relation to 'Y'.
CRT Cathode Ray Tube - The main part of the monitor used to display images to the user. Mechanism for converting the analog signal into an image based on the 'bombing' particulate phosphorus jet electrons by particles which glow a certain color depending on how the particles prepared. Monochrome cathode ray tubes used are a source of electrons (cathode) for generating a jet. Cathode ray tubes are used in three color cathode, to separate destinations for each jet in front of the phosphor layers assembled a perforated mask.
Cryptography Method for sending messages in a form that only one who intended to read. The word is of Greek origin and could be literally translated as 'SECRET DESCRITPIONS'. Possible for two people communicating over an insecure communication channel in a way that a third person who can control the communication channel, can not understand their message. Explanatory text is transformed into obfuscated using a pre-agreed key process called encryption, and reverse the process of converting text into incomprehensible understandable under the same key is called decryption. More..
CSS Cascading Style Sheets - Formation mechanism designed websites, based on the fact that every HTML (Hyper Text Marcup Language) TAG in the separate file explain how the user will present content that surrounds it. So, the basic function of CSS design.

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